以下でアクセス： 28 11月, 2015
The Community Innovation Survey (CIS) is a survey of innovation activity in enterprises. The harmonised survey is designed to provide information on the innovativeness of sectors by type of enterprises, on the different types of innovation and on various aspects of the development of an innovation, such as the objectives, the sources of information, the public funding or the expenditures.
The CIS provides statistics broke down by countries, type of innovators, economic activities and size classes. The survey is currently carried out every two years across the European Union, some EFTA countries and EU candidate countries.
In order to ensure comparability across countries, Eurostat, in close cooperation with the countries, has developed a standard core questionnaire starting with the CIS3 data collection, along with an accompanying set of definitions and methodological recommendations. The concepts and underlying methodology of the CIS are also based on the Oslo Manual — second edition of 1997 and third edition of 2005 (see link at the bottom of the page).
Up to CIS 2010, CIS results were collected under Commission Regulation (EC) No 1450/2004. A new Regulation will apply from CIS 2012 (EC No 995/2012).
The data presented in these tables refer to enterprises with ‘10 employees or more’ active in the sectors to be covered under the Regulation (cf. NACE CORE). Further activities may be covered on a voluntary basis. Most statistics are based on a reference period of three years, but some use one calendar year.
Since CIS 2008, the survey has included an ad-hoc module. It consists of a set of questions focusing on a special theme. The themes are different in each survey wave, allowing data to be obtained on specific issues beyond the data usually collected.
Overview over time:
Initially, the CIS data collection was carried out every four years. The first collection (CIS Light) was launched in 1993 as a pilot exercise and the second (CIS2) was carried out in 1997/1998 for most countries except Greece and Ireland, where it was launched in 1999. The third survey (CIS3) was conducted in 2000/2001 for most participating countries with the exception of Norway, Iceland, Luxembourg and Greece, where it was launched in 2002.
As from 2004, the survey has been carried out every two years.
CIS4 was conducted in the 25 EU Member States (as for 2004), Iceland, Norway, Bulgaria and Romania. The survey was launched in 2005 with a three-year reference period 2002 to 2004 for most indicators.
The fifth survey CIS 2006 was carried out in all 25 EU Member States (as for 2006), Norway, Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia and Turkey. It was launched in 2007, mostly for the reference period 2004 to 2006.
As regards CIS 2008, 26 Member States (all except Greece), Iceland, Norway, Croatia and Turkey took part in the survey. CIS 2008 was launched in 2009 with a three-year reference period 2006 to 2008 for most indicators. Changes were made to the CIS 2008 questionnaire to bring it into line with the third revision of the Oslo Manual, 2005 edition, by giving greater weight to organisational and marketing innovation. CIS 2008 was complemented by an ad-hoc module on innovation with environmental benefits.
The seventh Community Innovation Survey, CIS 2010, had 31 participating countries (all the EU 27 Member States (except Greece), Iceland, Norway, Croatia, Serbia and Turkey) and reported most results for the reference period 2008-2010. CIS 2010 also follows the recommendations of the Oslo Manual and reports indicators on four types of innovation: product, process, organisational and marketing.
However, despite implementation of the recommendations of the third edition of the Oslo Manual, the question on innovation expenditures is still limited to product and process innovation in order to maintain continuity with earlier versions of the CIS. Furthermore, generally fewer questions are asked about organisational and marketing innovation than about product and process innovation.
While the European innovation statistics use the aggregated national data, the microdata sets can be accessed by researchers via the SAFE Centre of Eurostat in Luxembourg or via the microdata on CD-ROM releases in more anonymised form; some countries also provide access to their micro-data at similar safe centres.