International Labour Organization
以下でアクセス： 03 9月, 2018
Data on hours of work are presented, whenever possible, on the basis of the mean number of hours of work per week, and with reference to hours worked in all jobs of employed persons and in all types of working time arrangements (e.g. full-time and part-time). Hours actually worked include (a) direct hours or the time spent carrying out the tasks and duties of a job, (b) related hours, or the time spent maintaining, facilitating or enhancing productive activities (c) down time, or time when a person in a job cannot work due to machinery or process breakdown, accident, lack of supplies or power or Internet access and (d) resting time, or time spent in short periods of rest, relief or refreshment, including tea, coffee or prayer breaks, generally practised by custom or contract according to established norms and/or national circumstances. Hours actually worked excludes time not worked during activities such as: (a) Annual leave, public holidays, sick leave, parental leave or maternity/paternity leave, other leave for personal or family reasons or civic duty, (b) Commuting time between work and home when no productive activity for the job is performed; for paid employment, even when paid by the employer; (c) Time spent in certain educational activities; for paid employment, even when authorized, paid or provided by the employer; (d) Longer breaks distinguished from short resting time when no productive activity is performed (such as meal breaks or natural repose during long trips); for paid employment, even when paid by the employer. The employed comprise all persons of working age who, during a specified brief period, were in the following categories: a) paid employment (whether at work or with a job but not at work); or b) self-employment (whether at work or with an enterprise but not at work). Data are disaggregated by economic activity according to the latest version of the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) available for that year, and presented for a selection of categories at the 2-digit level of the classification. Economic activity refers to the main activity of the establishment in which a person worked during the reference period and does not depend on the specific duties or functions of the person's job, but on the characteristics of the economic unit in which this person works.