National Science Foundation
以下でアクセス： 19 7月, 2017
National Patterns of R&D Resources provides current data on the levels and key trends of the performance and funding of research and experimental development (R&D) in the United States. The statistical tables included in this Data Update supplement the recent InfoBrief (September 2016, available at https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2016/nsf16316) by the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES) that discusses the National Patterns findings for 2014–15. The National Patterns statistics draw primarily from NCSES's national surveys of the R&D expenditures and funding of the organizations that perform the bulk of U.S. R&D—including businesses, federal and nonfederal government, higher education, and other nonprofit organizations. Additional details on levels and trends are provided by type of R&D performed (i.e., basic research, applied research, and experimental development). The National Patterns data are reported in both current and inflation-adjusted dollars, with comparisons to the historical record for U.S. R&D (back to 1953) and to the corresponding pace of overall U.S. economic growth. The data for 2014 are previously unreported in this series. These numbers reflect new input from the sectoral R&D expenditure surveys, which are generally final but still include a few estimated components. As such, the 2014 data are marked "preliminary" and may later be revised when the complete set of final survey data becomes available. The data for 2015 are chiefly estimates based on early findings from the 2015 sectoral surveys and evident recent trends. The data for 2015 are likely to be revised by the next edition of this report. The numbers for 1953–2013 reflect survey data that have been finalized in previous report editions but may still include further small revisions and corrections. (Accordingly, for trend comparisons readers should use the latest report in this series, not data published in earlier editions.) The statistical tables are arranged to exhibit the U.S. R&D data from two differing perspectives. The first perspective (tables 2–5) is by type of R&D performer, with subsequent breakouts by the source of funds. The second perspective (tables 6–9) is by source of funds, with subsequent breakouts by type of performer. The data in both groups of tables sum to the same overall U.S. R&D performance totals. Table 1 provides data mainly on the U.S. R&D-to-gross domestic product (GDP) ratio and its components. Tables 10–12 present state-level breakdowns of the U.S. R&D totals, by performing sector and source of funds, for 2012–14.