Data source(s) used: Namea air emissions - production activities: Air emissions calculated according to the Namea (National accounting matrix including environmental accounts) satellite account include all of the emissions caused by anthropogenic activities and not those caused by non-economic agents, i.e. by natural phenomena. Air emissions caused by anthropogenic activities are caused partly by resident production activities - due to specific production processes as well as to the use of fuels for heating and own account transport – and partly by households, mainly due to the use of fuels for heating and private transport. The primary data source for Namea emissions data is the national emission inventory (Corinair) annually produced by Istituto Superiore per la Ricerca e la Protezione Ambientale (Ispra) and used for the Italian Communications within the framework of international conventions: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Unfccc) and the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Clrtap). The link between Namea emission totals and those totals calculated by Ispra within the mentioned international conventions is shown under ‘Bridging items between NAMEA total and Unfccc/Clrtap total’.The distinguishing feature of Namea accounts is the consistency of environmental pressure data with the National Accounts principles and standards, as defined by the European System of Accounts (“ESA95”) – mainly with regard to the following three issues: 1. all flows relate to the activities of ‘residents units’, whereas: “…an institutional unit is said to be resident within the economic territory of a country when it maintains a centre of economic interest in that territory - that is, when it engages, or intends to engage, in economic activities or transactions on a significant scale either indefinitely or over a long period of time, usually interpreted as one year…” (ESA95 § 1.30); this principle implies that Namea emissions should include the activities of resident units on the national territory and in the Rest of the World (transport activities) and exclude the activities of non-resident units on the national territory (transport activities);2. the use of economic classifications, i.e., in the case of production activities, of the Nace classification (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community);3. the use of industries as units, which implies covering in addition to the principal activity, possible secondary activities as well as ancillary activities and to any relate to its principal activity, to its ancillary activities like heating and own account transport.Namea air emissions - households: Households cause air emissions mainly due to the use of fuels for private trasnport and gardening, heating, paint application and solvent use. Due to the consistency of Namea data with national accounts data, the emissions can be put side by side to households’ expenditure for products whose use is at the root of the environmental pressures themselves, i.e. specific items of the Coicop (Classification of Individual Consumption by Purpose) classification:- " Fuels and lubricants for personal transport equipment " (Coicop item 07.2.2), relevant for transport (and gardening) emissions,- " Electricity, gas and other fuels " (Coicop item 04.5), relevant for heating (and cooking) emissions,- households' expenditure for all functions except Transport (COICOP item 07) and heating (04.5), relevant for ‘other’ emissions, i.e., those due to paint application and solvent use.Bridging items between NAMEA total and UNFCCC/CLRTAP total: Namea emission totals do not equal to total emissions calculated within the framework of international conventions on air emissions (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change – Unfccc and the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution - Clrtap), due to the adoption in the Namea of the National Accounts principles and standards, as defined by the European System of Accounts (“ESA95”). Consistency with national accounts principles, and particularly to calculate residents’ emissions, implies adding to the unfcc/Clrtap data, the emissions of resident units in the Rest of the World (for transport activities) and subtracting the emissions of non-resident units on the national territory (for transport activities). The overall balance is obtained as the sum of road transport, air transport and maritime transport balances. Please note that, with regard to international air transport (for CO2, N2O and CH4) and sea transport (all pollutants), the emissions of non-resident units on the national territory are null as they are excluded by definition from the Unfccc/Clrtap totals. Emission intensity: Consistency between Namea and national accounts data allows to calculate emission intensity indicators (the inverse of efficiency indicators) for the various production activities: • emissions/ouput; ouput at basic prices - chain-linked volumes - reference year 2000 • emissions/value added; value added at basic prices - chain-linked volumes - reference year 2000 • emissions/total full time equivalents (FTE).
Other data characteristics: Output, value added and FTE data are consistent with the National accounts annual time series (in Nace Rev.1.1), edition prior to October 2011.