Data source(s) used: National materials' use accounts: Material flow satellite accounts provide, in accordance with the European Regulation on Environmental Accounting (691/2011), aggregated measures, by kind of material, of physical exchanges (in mass units) of the national socio-economic system with the natural system and the rest of the world.These accounts include all materials other than water and air. They are based on a complete and articulated database, that comprises and reconciles numerous sources of data on intakes of natural resources from the national territory, as well as all exchanges with the rest of the world.While intakes from National territory include – by definition – only natural resources, i.e. materials as they are in nature, exchanges with the rest of the world concern the whole range of material products, from raw materials to the most composite final products. There is therefore an important asymmetry between the two kinds of flows: in particular, it is necessary to keep in mind that “upstream” of internationally traded products there are great quantities of resources extracted from nature and transformed into residuals.The data, coherent with those provided by monetary national accounts, allow analysis of the material aspect of socio-economic metabolism, of sustainability of production and consumption, of decoupling between economic activity and environmental pressures and of resource productivity.The application of the residence principle implies the inclusion in the flows, as far as those with the rest of the world are concerned, next to imports and exports respectively, of products purchased abroad by resident units and of products purchased in Italy by non-resident units. In practice, this integration only concerns the most relevant of these flows, those of fuels.The indicators "Direct material input", "Domestic material consumption” and “Physical trade balance” describe, in a highly aggregated way, the direct use and the provenience of natural resources and products. Because of the asymmetry highlighted above, caution has to be put in the interpretation of these indicators in terms of resource consumption and environmental pressure, as their significance has to be evaluated according to the context and the objectives of the analysis. Initiatives are ongoing at the European as well as national level, in order to calculate data and indicators in “raw material equivalents”.All data are expressed in weight units (thousand tonnes).