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Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is a category of investment that reflects the objective of establishing a lasting interest by a resident enterprise in one economy (direct investor) in an enterprise (direct investment enterprise) that is resident in an economy other than that of the direct investor. The lasting interest implies the existence of a long-term relationship between the direct investor and the direct investment enterprise and a significant degree of influence (not necessarily control) on the management of the enterprise. The direct or indirect ownership of 10% or more of the voting power of an enterprise resident in one economy by an investor resident in another economy is the statistical evidence of such a relationship. FDI statistics are on a directional basis (inward or outward) and relate to FDI flows, FDI positions (stocks) and FDI income. Outward investments are cross-border investments by direct investors resident in the reporting country while inward investments are investments by non-resident investors in the reporting country. FDI flows are cross-border financial transactions within a given period (e.g. year, quarter) between affiliated enterprises that are in a direct investment relationship. FDI positions relate to the stock of investments at a given point in time (e.g. end of year, end of quarter). FDI flows and positions include equity (10% or more voting shares), reinvestment of earnings and inter-company debt. FDI income is the return on direct investment positions of equity (dividends and reinvested earnings) and debt (interest).
Special Purpose Entities (SPEs): Information on resident SPEs for Estonia and Sweden (FDI flows only) is confidential. This information is not yet available separately for Canada, Ireland and Mexico. The information is available separately for Austria, Chile, Denmark, Hungary, Iceland, Korea, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. However, the information is not displayed in the tables for all countries, due to limited availability of historical data or to differences in data vintages. Resident SPEs are not present or not significant in Australia, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Turkey, and the United States.