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The paper associated with this dataset analyzes theoretically and empirically the impact of comparative advantage in international trade on fertility. It builds a model in which industries differ in the extent to which they use female relative to male labor and countries are characterized by Ricardian comparative advantage in either female labor or male labor intensive goods. The values of "Share of Female Workers in Total Employment by Sectors" are reported for the full country sample, and OECD and non-OECD separately. The values of "Female Labor Needs of Exports" by country and 5-year interval. The "Year" denotes the beginning of a 5-year period, i.e., year = 1960 denotes an average over 1960-1964