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Population growth is an increase in the number of people in a population.
To survive, humanity needs natural resources, food supply, fuel and so on. Therefore, the faster the population grows, the faster resources are exhausted, while many of them are limited.
Global population growth is about 1.1% per year. The world's population has grown from 3 billion in 1960 to 7.6 billion in 2018. Despite the slowdown, it continues to grow, and it is estimated that the total population will be 8.5 billion by 2030 and 9.7 billion by 2050. Many countries with fast population growth have low living standards, while countries with low population growth have high living standards.

Population growth in the West began during the period of industrialization in the late 18th century. The reasons for this process were investigated by British medical scientist Thomas McKeown.

In his publications, McKeown puts forward key ideas about population growth:

- the population growth observed in the 19th century was caused not so much by an increase in fertility as by a decrease in mortality, especially child mortality and infant mortality;

- the decrease in mortality is explained by an increase in living standards, in particular, improved nutrition;

- he also doubted the effectiveness of public health reforms: sanitary reforms, vaccination and quarantine.

However, the population growth is stopping now. It is predicted to fall down to 0,5% per year by 2050. Various factors of the modern world influence this decline. First of all the declining fertility rate in the combination with increasing life conditions and life expectancy at birth. All these factors lead to the lack of young population and increase in the elderly at the same time. Moreover, the living places become more and more urbanized, making women more business involved, so many of females refuse to give a birth.

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