エラーが発生しました。 詳細 隠す
保存されていないページがあります。 復元 取り消す

Official statistics for any country reflect registered, transparent economic transactions, by default failing to capture the full breadth of economic activity that can emanate from the "shadow economy." The so called shadow economy is any economic activity that is deliberately concealed from public authorities to avoid payment of income, value added or other taxes; to avoid payment of social security contributions; having to meet certain legal labour market standards, such as minimum wages, maximum working hours, safety standards, etc; and complying with certain administrative procedures, such as completing statistical questionnaires or administrative forms.*

Surprisingly, the unreported portion of economic activities for some countries exceeds 50 percent of GDP. In such countries as Bolivia, Georgia, Panama and Zimbabwe the size of the shadow economy during the period 1999-2007 was higher than 60 percent of official GDP estimates. In contrast, the weighted average share of the shadow economy is estimated to represent about 17 percent of the official world GDP with the United Kingdom, United States, Luxemburg, Austria, and Japan recording the smallest shadow economies during the period.

*Source: Schneider, Friedrich , Buehn, Andreas and Montenegro, Claudio E.(2010) 'New Estimates for the Shadow Economies all over the World', International Economic Journal, 24: 4, 443-461.

To access the full shadow economy dataset, click here.

Knoemaの関連分析データ

The World's Largest Economy: China or the United States?

Which is the world's largest economy, China or the United States? As is usual in the field of economics, “It depends.” It depends on the methods used to estimate the size of an economy and to compare one economy to another. Despite modern discussions on refining the calculation of gross domestic product (GDP), the standard measure of an economy’s size and performance, to be more inclusive of economic factors that have been ignored to date, such as environmental and natural resource depletion, there is no commonly accepted alternative to GDP. There are, however, at least two commonly...

The Shadow Economy in Europe and OECD Countries in 2003-2015

The $9.7 trillion global shadow economy is the second largest economy in the world after the United States, according to the 2010 estimates of the black market for 162 countries. Still, as for the more recent study, the size of the underground economy in European and other OECD countries have been decreasing steadily since 2009 and continued shrinking in 2015 averaging to 16.7 percent of official GDP. But this development was not uniform across individual countries: 10 out of 36 OECD countries experienced an increase in the black market size in 2015. The most significant upsurge of...

Global Events and the Economic Policy Uncertainty Index

Every day events around the world cause ripple effects that affect global, national, and local levels of economic and political uncertainty. Recent mainstream examples include US sanctions against Venezuela, Brexit, the partial US government shutdown, protests in France, and the US-China trade war. As uncertainty rises, we observe markets responding, whether you're tracking stock prices, commodity prices, or even interest rates. Today we have another more comprehensive measure available to monitor these effects: the Economic Policy Uncertainty Index. Developed by a group of...

US Purchasing Managers Index Falls Below 50, Signals Contraction

In August, US manufacturing activity contracted 2.1 points from July, the largest contraction in nearly three years. According to the Institute of Supply Management (ISM) Purchasing Manufacturing Index (PMI) - commonly referred to as the ISM manufacturing index - fell to 49.1, making the US a late comer to a growing club of large economies, such as China, the Eurozone, Japan, and the United Kingdom, that have likewise reported contracting manufacturing sectors in recent months. The PMI is being dragged down by a sharp decline in new orders, non-farm employment (which increased by...

当社の個人情報保護方針&クッキーポリシー

当社のウェブサイトではクッキーを使用し、ユーザー様のオンライン体験を向上させております。このウェブサイトを立ち上げたときに、クッキーはお使いのコンピュータ上に配置されます。インターネットブラウザの設定を通して、個人的なクッキーの設定を変更できます。

個人情報保護方針