Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national and international (CIS, EUROSTAT, IMF, OECD, World Bank) official sources.
General note: The UNECE secretariat presents time series ready for immediate analysis. When appropriate, source segments with methodological differences have been linked and rescaled to build long consistent time series.
Constant price estimates are based on data compiled by the National Statistical Offices (NSOs), which reflect various national practices (different base years, fixed base, chain, etc.). To facilitate international comparisons, the data reported by the NSOs have been scaled to the current price value of of the common reference year. The resulting chain constant price data are not additive.
Common currency (US$) estimates are computed by the secretariat using purchasing power parities (PPPs), which are the rates of currency conversion that equalise the purchasing power of different currencies. PPPs, and not exchange rates, should be used in international comparisons of GDP and its components.
Regional aggregates are computed by the secretariat. For national accounts all current price aggregates are sums of national series converted into US$ at current PPPs of GDP; all constant price aggregates are calculated by summing up national series scaled to the price level of the common reference year and then converted into US$ using PPPs of GDP of the common reference year. Due to conversion and rounding the resulting aggregates and components could be non-additive. For more details see the composition of regions note.
Growth rates (per cent) are over the preceding period, unless otherwise specified.
Contributions to per cent growth in GDP (in percentage points) are over the preceding period, unless otherwise specified.